Biology is the science that studies living things on the planet and evolutionary biology is the branch that studies the development of the evolution of living beings.
ATTENTION ! : Our theory has been fully validated by a long experiment in 2017.
Knowledge in the field of biology has changed a lot in the last decades, thanks to the great technological advances that have facilitated the study of life at small scales.
Current knowledge has greatly changed our perception of life and its evolution, the evidence is so overwhelming and contrary to previous knowledge, that it is necessary a re-writing of textbooks of schools and universities, as well as a re-education Of current schoolteachers and universities, who are still trapped in the old knowledge in which they were formed.
Brief History of Evolutionary Theory.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck, about 1,810 proposes the first evolutionary theory, proposed that the great variety of organisms, had evolved from simple forms; Postulating that the protagonists of this evolution had been the organisms themselves because of their ability to adapt to the environment: changes in that environment generated new needs in organisms, and these new needs would lead to a modification of them that would be heritable.
In other words, Lamark said that the organs developed as needed, a giraffe stretched its neck and legs in response to the need to reach the highest leaves of the trees. Given that viruses and bacteria were not known at that time, he also proposed that life originated spontaneously.
August Weismann around 1890 did an experiment to refute Lamark, proving that if for 20 generations he cut off the tail and mated the mice, the mice were still born with tail. This experiment to this day is considered valid, but later we will analyze it to prove its falsity.
Around 1860 Charles Darwin proposed in his work the origin of species that “The origin of species is through natural selection, or preservation of the races favored in the struggle for life.” The survival of the most adapted, the competition between living beings, and defining the mechanism by which evolution is given as: “the accumulation of mutations.”
The main observation that supports this theory is that the species produce more descendants of those that will become adults and will be able to procreate to produce more descendants. In other words, if a rabbit has 14 offspring, at maturity and procreation there are only 4, these 4 are the most adapted and the 10 who died for various reasons were the least maladjusted.
Pedro Kropotkin around 1890, a Russian scientist, accepted Darwin’s theory in part, adding the following dichotomy: I- Organism against organism in the case of limited resources, which would lead us to competition (“struggle for survival”). And, II- Organism against environment, in case of harsh environment, which would lead to cooperation. In Kropotkin’s own words: “sociability is a law of nature as is the mutual struggle.”
With the discovery of Mendelian genetics around 1,900, the scientific community established that the source of the diversity on which the “natural selection of the fittest” of Darwin’s theory acted, was Mendelian genetic diversity, based on the accumulation of Genetic errors.
By 1940, when DNA is discovered, the scientific community reaffirmed its Darwinian view of evolution by placing DNA as the library where hereditary factors are stored.
The main problem of Darwinian theory as Darwin recognized in his own work was the reality that the fossil record did not show a gradual accumulation of changes in species, but that the fossil record presented was jumps from one species to another. Darwin thought he could solve the problem by seeing the variation in the beak of a single species of bird on various islands, as an adaptation to the characteristics of the islands.
Other variations of Darwin’s theory have been proposed to solve this flaw, such as the theory of “dotted equilibrium” or that of “promising monster”, but the truth is that none gives a satisfactory answer to the reality of the fossil record.
Over the last 100 years Darwin’s theory has received a number of modifications to the new discoveries, but has not changed in its essence. That is to say, Darwin’s own theory evolved over time with the contribution of the scientists who defend it, and call it: expanded modern evolutionary synthesis. (Interesting to note that the evolution of this theory has been cooperative)
In Chernobyl, in 1986, a nuclear accident occurred, and biologists have come out to investigate the effects of radiation ever since. These biologists armed with the knowledge of Darwin’s theory, began to evaluate the results of this accident, since according to what they learned in their universities, would have to exist many genetic mutations, in the wild, and these mutations, should of Produce animals, “less fit” to survive.
From the beginning they were careful to make flawless experiments, and they did indeed get what they expected. But after publishing their article in scientific journals, they received automated laboratory equipment, and re-processed the organisms they had.
The result was devastating, the automatic analyzes, showed that their results were totally false. The same group of scientists had to swallow their words to discover that their results were unconsciously manipulated by themselves, by the blindness imposed on their education as biologists, read the details here. The same happens in the islands where the Americans have tested their atomic bombs , stanford-research-on-effects-of-radioactivity-from-bikini-atoll-nuclear-tests-on-coral-and-crab-dna , also in 2017 it was discovered that electrical storms produce nuclear reactions and gamma rays, so we ask ourselves: does the observer of an experiment actually see what happens, or only see what he wants to see? This is the famous problem of the observer.
Darwin’s theory, not having experiments that prove it, does not comply with the scientific method. (Unless we accept as valid the experiments of Bruce Banner, which manipulating gamma rays, produced a random mutation in itself, and became Hulk, or those of Reed Richards, Sue Storm, Johnny Storm and Ben Grimm, who received doses of radiation from a cosmic storm, and as a result, randomly became the fantastic 4).
Moreover, knowing that a Theory is a hypothesis of the scientific method, which has been confirmed by many experiments, we can´t give “Theory” rank to Darwin’s claims.
The reason why a part of nineteenth-century society together with a part of the scientific community have supported Darwin is simply because the insensitive human being is selfish and an egoistic theory exculpates us from our crimes. (The indiscriminate exploitation of nature, but the exploitation of man by man).
But it is also true that there have also been human beings with altruistic vision for centuries, and every year there are more scientists with experiments in hands, who dare to challenge Darwin.
Implications of Darwin in Society.
Darwin’s theory has greatly impacted human society to such a degree that it gave rise to Eugenics, which is a direct implication of “natural selection”, to promote the evolution of the human being by helping “natural selection” Eliminating less adapted races, such as black, Indian, Asian, gypsy, etc.
In other words, the rich and the Aryan white are the only ones who must survive. And eugenics has been applied in almost every country in the world and in many and varied ways such as the forced sterilization of the mentally ill. Clear before Darwin the Spartans already practiced it, the bad thing about Darwin is that it gave him a scientific base, which as we will demonstrate in truth does not have.
The other great implication of Darwin’s theory in society is that it gives no purpose to life, in this view life arises as an accumulation of errors that fortunately in some cases proved favorable. And a life without purpose, or rather where the only purpose is to survive fighting all against all, gives us the great disaster of society that we have today, where the only thing that matters is to make money regardless of the lives to be sacrificed, pollution that we generate, etc.
The important thing is to survive in the cement jungle where everyone is looking to take advantage of everyone to make money, regardless of whether the next generation does not have to eat or have clean air to breathe. This vision of life, its purpose and origin tells us that it can be robbed, lying, defrauded, corrupt as this gives us an advantage in the struggle for “natural selection” within our species.
Biological Evolution Year 2013.
Theory of games, is the branch of mathematics that studies conflicting relationships, in order to provide efficient solutions to the conflict. This discipline has discovered that selfish individuals get more efficient results if they work cooperatively (remember the movie “a brilliant mind”).
In 1990 Robert Axelrod did a mathematical study in the field of game theory, where he discovered that the best iterative strategy (Which is done many times) in the worst cooperative scenario (which is “the prisoner’s dilemma”) is the strategy to starting cooperatively.
That is to say: the first time before an unknown player is played cooperative and the second time is played as it behaved the other player the past, if cooperative was cooperative, if it was selfish then selfish. This simple strategy demonstrates that the interactions between living beings to be efficient must be cooperative and therefore evolution must be given cooperatively.
In 1981. Lynn Margulis, demonstrated that eukaryotic (more evolved, more complex) cells were produced from the symbiotic, cooperative union of prokaryotic (simpler) cells, this is known as serial endosymbiosis.
This demonstration produced such a break in the scientific community that they had to accept that Darwin’s theory does not apply to these cells that are the basis of plants and animals.
Near the year 2,000 was discovered to stem cells, cells capable of becoming any type of cell depending on the environment in which it develops.
About 2,000 to 2,013 we discovered:
- There are hereditary factors that are not in DNA, epigenetics (DNA is interpreted).
- Bacteria, plants and animals transfer genetic information horizontally (this only bury the idea of a family tree).
- Cells possess endo-viruses that are the mechanism by which genes move and copy inside and outside the chromosomes, in response to changes in the environment where the cell lives.
In 2010 Bonnie Bassler discovered that bacteria communicate with each other and with other species of bacteria, and that they change their behavior according to the outcome of their communications.
Retired teacher Maximo Sandin tells us:
- Life is unimaginably complex, with extreme interdependence, conditioning and ability to communicate with the environment.
- Using von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory: Life is an organized set of interdependent and interdependent parts that are related in a unitary and complex whole that seeks balance with the environment.
And one of his students provides us with an excellent graph of how evolution, speciation and adaptation take place.
http://www.somosbacteriasyvirus.com/inflexion.pdf by Daniel Heredia Doval
Our Contribution, The Simple Evolutionary Integral Theory.
The great amount of advances and discoveries in biology from the 1950s to the 2013, make a new evolutionary theory necessary, which can´t be fabricated by extending the theory of natural selection of Charles Darwin, this is what we have done since 1860 and It can´t be extended any more.
All show that the factor influencing evolution, change, is the environment, the surroundings. In fact it was the same thing that Darwin saw in the Galapagos Islands.
Like Professor Max Sandin, he does not give us a concrete definition of evolutionary theory, and Lynn Margulis includes the mechanism of equilibrium with the environment in his definition, but he still uses the term “natural selection”, forcing us to propose our own evolutionary theory:
Life is produced due to the need to balance with the environment, through three interacting phenomena, and its mechanism is the integral cooperation with everything that existed. (Since the big bang).
- Adaptation: gradual modification of internal structures, to be more in tune with the environment.
- Speciation: reproductive separation to reduce the exchange of hereditary information, and not lose the characteristics (Adaptation) that allow a better balance with a given environment.
- Evolution: internal reorganization towards a new level of complexity, due to a strong imbalance with the environment.
Life is driven by an imbalance with the surrounding, the environment. This balance with the environment is developed through the participation of two groups of antagonistic forces, which are rather orthogonal, since they complement each other.
- Altruistic Forces: Cooperation, Positive Pole, Life, Order.
- Selfish Forces: Competition, Negative Pole, Death, Chaos.
The evolution of a way of life can´t be analyzed independently of the rest of the life forms of the planet nor of the planetary variables such as the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and many more.
Competition is a direct consequence of the limitation of resources. In any case, the competition we see in nature, is a regulation mechanisms, for the balance of all life on the planet.
The fundamental observation of Darwin’s theory that species have more offspring than the number of individuals who will survive and produce offspring is a form of tribute from the species to other forms of life, for all to survive and Life as a global whole continues to exist.
Since all forms of life depend on the survival of all other life forms on the planet, everything is interconnected. Example blood platelets, these cells are willing to sacrifice themselves to stop a hemorrhage, and thousands of more examples.
August Weismann’s experiment, which contradicts the influence of the environment, is a failure since the loss of the tail of the mouse is the product of an accident made by an external agent, not a need to balance the environment, the rats after 20 generations still have the need for a tail, the accident does not remove the need for the tail. We find it strange that we are the first to dismantle this ancient experiment.
The true contribution of Charles Darwin is that I definitively raise the idea that species evolved, arising from previous species, discarding the idea that species always existed and were created according to religions and mythologies.
Implications of Simple Integral Theory in Society.
The purpose of life has never been to make money, or to abuse others and life on the planet to survive.
This theory implies that life has a purpose, that each species is created by nature with a purpose, the human being was created by nature from the preexisting life for the purpose of maintaining the harmonic balance of life on the planet (Includes the harmonic balance with the other men).
This is not observed in the 2.013 since the human being is still a young species that is at a child level of development, ie just now evolving from his current individual egoistic development towards his collective selfish development (Altruist, the good of All is the good of the individual).
Darwin and the other scientists lived and lived in an individual and competitive selfish society whose sole purpose is to earn money in the shortest possible time. This influenced them in their observations of living beings and therefore proposed a theory of egoistic and competitive biological evolution, totally removed from the cooperative reality.
Hypothesis: It is an acceptable assumption that is formulated through the collection of information and data and tries to explain some phenomenon.
Theory: It is a Hypothesis that has been verified several times using the scientific method.
Law: It is a Theory, which has been proven many times using the scientific method, becoming a “truth” of universal application.